Estelle Levetin, PhD: Professor of Biology

Faculty of Biological Science

The University of Tulsa

600 S. College

Tulsa, OK 74104

Tel: (918) 631-2764

Fax: (918) 631-2762

Degrees Earned:

B.S.(Ed) - State College at Boston - 1966

Ph.D. - University of Rhode Island - 1971

Area of Specialization: Mycology and Botany

Professional Experience:

Professional Memberships:

Botanical Society of America; Mycological Society of America (Chair of Medical Mycology Committee 1996-97), British Mycological Society ; Society of Sigma Xi, Oklahoma Academy of Science; Beta Beta Beta, International Association of Aerobiology (Newsletter Editor 1986-1994, Exec Committee - 1986-98, Council Member - 1990-98, Vice President - 1994-98, Treasurer - 2006-2010); Panamerican Aerobiology Association - (Secy-Treas - 1993-97; President 1997-01); American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology


Publications in Refereed Journals

Levetin, E. and N.E. Caroselli, 1976. A simplified medium for the growth and sporulation of Pilobolus sp. Mycologia, Vol. 68:6 p 1254-58.

Levetin, E. and L. Horowitz, 1977. Air-borne fungi of Tulsa: I - Culture plate method. Proceedings of the Okla. Acad. Sci. Vol. 57: 51-53.

Levetin, E. and L. Horowitz, 1978. One year survey of airborne molds of Tulsa, Oklahoma: I - Outdoor survey. Annals of Allergy. Vol. 41 No. 1 pp 21-24.

Levetin, E., and D. Hurewitz, 1978. One year survey of airborne molds of Tulsa, Oklahoma: II - Indoor survey. Annals of Allergy. Vol. 41 No. 1: pp 25-27.

Levetin and Buck, 1980. Hay fever plants of Oklahoma, 1980. Annals of Allergy, Vol 45 pp 26-32. 

Bonnell, B. And E. Levetin, 1981. The influence of nutrition on the growth and sporulation of two strains of Epicoccum nigrum, Mycologia, Vol. 73 No. 2 pp 238-243.

Bonnell, B. and E. Levetin, 1982. Effect of light on the sporulation of two strains of Epicoccum nigrum. Proceedings Okla. Acad. Sci. Vol. 62 pp 89-90.

Buck, P. and E. Levetin, 1982. Weather patterns and ragweed pollen production in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Annals of Allergy. Vol 49 No. 5 : 272-275.

Levetin, E. and P. Buck, 1984. Non-allergenic native and cultivated plants in Oklahoma: Landscaping without hay fever. Annals of Allergy. Vol 52 pp 166-171.

Buck, P. and E. Levetin, 1985. Airborne pollen and mold spores in a subalpine environment. Annals of Allergy. Vol. 55 pp 794-801. 

Levetin, E. and P. Buck, 1986. Evidence of mountain cedar pollen in Tulsa. Annals of Allergy. Vol. 56 pp 295-299.

Levetin, E., 1989. Basidiospore identification. Annals of Allergy. Vol. 62 pp 306-310. 

Levetin, E., N. Jones, and Kerry Owens, 1990. A Preliminary checklist of the Agaricales of Tulsa County, Okla., Mycotaxon. Vol. 36(2): 337-343.

Shaughnessy, R. and E. Levetin, 1990. Case Study: Sick Building Syndrome in a Humid Climate, Proceedings of Symposium on Building Systems in Hot and Humid Climates.

Levetin, E., 1990. Studies on airborne basidiospores, Aerobiologia 6: 177-180.

Levetin, E., 1991. Identification and concentration of airborne basidiospores. GRANA Vol 30: 123-128.

Levetin, E., W.E. Horner, and S.B. Lehrer. 1992. Morphology and allergenic properties of spores from four Calvatia species. Mycologia. Vol 84: 759-767. 

Horner, W.E., E. Levetin, and S.B. Lehrer. 1993. Basidiospore allergen release: elution from intact spores. J. Allergy and Clin. Immun. 92: 306-312. 

Shaughnessy, R., E. Levetin, J. Blocker, and K. Sublette. 1994. The Effectiveness of portable air cleaners - Sensory testing results. Indoor Air Journal 4: 179-188.

Levetin, E., R. Shaughnessy, E. Fisher, B. Ligman, J. Harrison, T. Brennan. 1995. Indoor air quality in schools: Exposure to fungal allergens. Aerobiologia Vol 11 (1) 27-34.

Levetin, E. 1995. "Fungi". In: Bioaerosols, ed. H. Burge, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton pp: 87-120.

Pettyjohn, M. and E. Levetin. 1996. Conifer pollen: Is a reassessment in order. In: Aerobiology (Muilenberg and Burge, ed) Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, pp 109-122.

Crotzer, V. and E. Levetin. 1996. The aerobiological significance of smut spores in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Aerobiologia. Vol 12: 177-184.

Levetin, E. 1997. Yearly fluctuations in atmospheric ragweed pollen concentration in Tulsa, Oklahoma. In: Current Concepts in Pollen-Spore Research (Chanda Felicitation Volume) S.G. Bhattacharya, ed. P. 145-154 

Levetin, E. 1997. Aerobiology of Agricultural Pathogens. In Manual of Environmental Microbiology, (Eds, Hurst, Knudson, McInerney, Stetzenbach, and Walter), ASM Press, Washington, D.C., pp 693-702. 

Portman, R., R. Moseman, and E. Levetin. 1997. Surface ornamentation and basidiospore morphology in the genus Calvatia, Mycotaxon Vol 62: 435-443.

Icenhour (Perry), C. and E. Levetin, 1997, Penicillium and Aspergillus species in the habitats of allergy patients in the Tulsa, Oklahoma Area, Aerobiologia, Vol 13 (3) 161-166

Levetin, E and R. Shaugnessy, 1997. Myrothecium, A new indoor air contaminant? Aerobiologia Vol 13 (4) 227-234.

Pettyjohn, M. and E. Levetin. 1997. Comparative biochemical study of conifer pollen allergens. Aerobiologia Vol 13 (4) 259-267.

Levetin, E. 1998. A Long-term study of winter and early spring pollen in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Aerobiologia Vol 14 (1)

Rogers, C. and E. Levetin. 1998. Evidence of long-distance transport of mountain cedar pollen into Tulsa, Oklahoma. Int. J. Biometeorol, 42: 65-72.

Sterling, M., C. Rogers, and E. Levetin.1999. An Evaluation of two methods used for microscopic analysis of airborne fungal spore concentrations from the Burkard Spore Trap. Aerobiologia vol 15: 9-18.

Craig, R. and E. Levetin. 2000. Multiyear Study of Ganoderma Aerobiology, Aerobiologia 16 (1) 79-85.

Levetin, E, C. Rogers, and S.Hall.. 2000. Comparison of Pollen Sampling with a Burkard Spore Trap and a Tauber Trap in a Warm Temperate Climate. Grana 39: 294-302.

C. Troutt and E Levetin. 2001. Correlation of spring spore concentrations and meteorological conditions in Tulsa, Oklahoma, International Journal of Biometeorology. 45: 64-74

Levetin, E., R. Shaughnessy, C.A. Rogers, and R. Scheir. 2001. Effectiveness of Germicidal UV Radiation for Reducing Fungal Contamination within Air Handling Units, Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67: 3712-3715.

Van de Water, P. and E. Levetin. 2001. The Contribution of upwind pollen sources to the characterization of Juniperus ashei phenology. Grana. 40: 133-141.

Levetin, E. and P. Van de Water. 2001. Environmental Contributions to Allergic Disease, Current Allergy Reports, 1 (6): 506-514.

Levetin, E. and W.E. Horner. 2002. Fungal Aerobiology: Exposure and Measurement, in "Fungal Allergy and Pathogenicity", ed by Brittenbach, Crameri, and Lehrer.Krager, Basel, Swtizerland..

Levetin, E. 2002. Aerobiology of Agricultural Pathogens, In: Manual of Environmental Microbiology 2nd edition, American Society of Microbiology Press, pp 884-897.

Levetin, E., 2002. Bioaerosols in Agriculture and Outdoor Settings, in Encyclopedia of Environmental Microbiology, John Wiley & Sons, pp 404-415

Burch, M. and E. Levetin 2002. Effects of Meteorological Conditions on Spore Plumes. Int. J. Biometeorol, 46:107-117.

Levetin, E. and P. Van de Water. 2003. Pollen Count Forecasting. Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America Vol 23 (3): 423-442.

Van de Water, P. , C.E. Main, T. Keever, and E. Levetin. 2003. An Assessment of Predictive Forecasting Juniperus ashei Pollen Movement in the Southern Great Plains. International Journal of Biometeorology 48: 74-82.

Levetin, E. 2004. Images in Allergy: An Atlas of Fungal Spores. J Allergy Clin Immun 113: 366-368.

Newhouse, C and E. Levetin. Correlation of Environmental Factors with Asthma and Rhinitis Symptoms in Tulsa, OK. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 92: 356-366.

Horner, E., E. Levetin, and S. Lehrer. 2004 Aerobiology. In: R.F. Lockey, Bukantz, Bousquet (eds) Allergens and Allergen Immunotherapy, 3rd ed. Marcel Dekker, NY, pp125-149.

Levetin, E. 2004. Methods of Aeroallergen Sampling. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, 4: 376-383

Levetin, E. and K. Dorsey. 2006. Contribution of Leaf Surface Fungi to the Air Spora. Aerobiologia, 22: 3-12.

Levetin, E. 2006. How well do counts add up? Annals of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, 96:764-765

Levetin, E. 2007. Aerobiology of Agricultural Pathogens, In: Manual of Environmental Microbiology 3rd edition, American Society of Microbiology Press, pp 1031-1047.

Gillum, S. and E. Levetin. 2008. The Air Spora Close to a Compost Facility in Northeast Oklahoma: Part I-Spore Trap Sampling. Aerobiologia 24 (1): 3-12.

Horner, W.E., C. Barnes, R. Codina, E. Levetin. 2008. Guide for interpreting reports from inspections / investigations of indoor mold. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Vol 121: 592-597.

Bernstein, IL, JT Li, DI Bernstein, R Hamilton, SL Spector, R Tan, S Sicherer, DBK Golden, DA Khan, RA Nicklas, JM Portnoy, J Blessing-Moore, L Cox, DM Lang, J Oppenheimer, CC Randolph, DE Schuller, SA Tilles, DV Wallace, E Levetin, R Weber. 2008. Allergy Diagnostic Testing: An Updated Practice Parameter. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 1-148.

Hassett, C.C., W.E. Horner, E. Levetin, L.G. Wild, W.E. Davis, S.B. Lehrer, J. Lacey. 2008. Fungi as Allergens, Chapter 46: 963-983. In: Allergy and Allergic Diseases, 2nd edition. A.B. Kay, Ed. Wiley Publishing. New York.

Levetin E and P. Van de Water. 2008. Changing Pollen Types/Concentrations/ Distribution in the United States: Fact or Fiction? Current Allergy and Asthma Reports 8: 418-424.

Khattab, A and E. Levetin. 2008. Preliminary Studies on the Effect of the Burkard Alternate Orifice on Airborne Fungal Spore Concentrations. Aerobiologia 24: 165-171.

Khattab, A and E. Levetin. 2008. Effect of Sampling Height on the Concentration of Airborne Fungal Spores. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 101: 529-534.

Andersen G.L., A.S. Frisch, C.A. Kellogg, E. Levetin, B. Lighthart, D. Paterno. 2009. Aeromicrobiology/Air Quality, pages 11-26. In: The Encyclopedia of Microbiology, 3rd edition. Ed. Moselio Schaechter, Elsevier, Oxforld, UK.

Rabito, F.A., S. Perry. W.E. Davis, C.L. Yau, E. Levetin. 2010. The Relationship Between Mold Exposure and Allergic Responses in Post-Katrina New Orleans. Journal of Allergy, vol. 2010, Article ID 510380, 7 pages, 2010. doi:10.1155/2010/510380.

Levetin, E., W. Neaville, R. Ausdenmoore, M. Lierl, and R.K. Bush. Aeroallergens and Environmental Factors, In: Manual of Allergy and Immunology, 5th edition, D.C. Adelman, T.B. Casale, and J. Corren Eds. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Philadelphia, 2012. pp 52-66.

Andersen G.L., A.S. Frisch, C.A. Kellogg, E. Levetin, B. Lighthart, D. Paterno. Aeromicrobiology,   In: Topics in Ecological Environmental Microbiology, T. Schmidt and M. Schaechter, Eds. Elsevier/Academic Press. 2012. pp 115-132.

Bunderson, L., P. Van De Water, H. Wells, E. Levetin. Predicting and Quantifying Pollen Production in Juniperus ashei Forests. Phytologia 2012; 94 (3): 417-438.

Barnes, C,  N.E. Alexis, J.A. Bernstein, J.R. Cohn, J.G. Demain, W.E. Horner, E. Levetin, A. Nel, W. Phipatanakul. Climate Change and our Environment; the Impact on Respiratory and Allergic Disease. JACI: In Practice. 2013. 1:137-141.

Rivera-Mariani FE, Vysyaraju K, Negherbon J, Levetin E, Horner WE, Hartung T, Breysse PN. Comparison of the Interleukin-1β-Inducing Potency of Allergenic Spores from Higher Fungi (Basidiomycetes) in a Cryopreserved Human Whole Blood System. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 2014. 163: 154-62.

Howard L and E Levetin. 2014. Ambrosia Pollen in Tulsa, Oklahoma: Aerobiology, Trends, and Forecasting Model Development. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology. 113 (6): 641-646.

Bunderson L and E Levetin. 2015. Hygroscopic Weight Gain of Pollen Grains from Juniperus Species. Int. J. Biometeorol. 59: 533-540.


Levetin, E. and K. McMahon, 1996. Plants and Society Wm. C. Brown Publishing Co., Dubuque, Iowa.

Levetin, E. and K. McMahon, 1999, Plants and Society, 2nd ed. WCB/McGraw-Hill, Dubuque, Iowa

Levetin, E. and K. McMahon, 2003, Plants and Society, 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, Dubuque, Iowa

Levetin, E. and K. McMahon. 2006, Plants and Society, 4th ed, McGraw-Hill, Dubuque, Iowa

Levetin, E. and K. McMahon. 2008, Plants and Society, 5th ed, McGraw-Hill, Dubuque, Iowa

Levetin , E and K. McMahon. 2012, Plants and Society, 6th ed, McGraw-Hill, Dubuque, Iowa

Levetin, E., K. McMahon, R. Reinsvold. 2002. Laboratory Manual of Applied Botany, McGraw-Hill, Dubuque, Iowa